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Prajkta R. Kamble, Rahul S. Jadhav


The current power rely heavily on the fossil fuels, including oil, coal, and natural gas, as the energy sources. So, Climate change and greenhouse gas emissions have become a recognized problem of international significance in recent years. Renewable energy sources offer a key solution to this problem. Optimization of energy consumption in future Smart Grids will be based on grid-integrated near-real-time communications between various grid elements in generation, transmission, distribution and loads. Smart Grids are backbone of a Smart City by enabling the integration of small distributed energy resources in urban network, increasing customers awareness, providing real-time optimization of energy flows at the urban level, enabling interdependence and facilitating a multi-services approach linking the electricity carrier and other infrastructure. Increased use of Information and Communication technology (ICT) improves reliability, security, and efficiency of electric grid through a dynamic optimization of grid operations and resources, (with full cyber security). 

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